A framework was developed for this study which outlines a methodology for impact assessment, provides the rationale for the methodology and presents the results of the assessment of the impact of the training provided by CSC e-Governance Services India Ltd. To various respondents from rural corners across the country. The framework proposed in the report was used to assess the impact of the training programme provided by the CSC e-Governance Services India Ltd., Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Government of India. The proposed framework focuses on the idea of measuring the digital literacy of different respondents and takes a balanced approach to perform both quantitative and qualitative analysis. It recognizes that some part of the responses received for each respondent is quantitative while other parts need to be assessed qualitatively. The training programme was analyzed by designing an online structured questionnaire and collecting data from the respondents through the telephonic survey. The framework aims to measure the impact and understand processes that can explain the nature and quantum of impact. It also identifies the possible shortcomings which when corrected can increase the efficacy of any similar programme in future.
The framework was used to make detailed assessments of six mature wide scope sub-sections representing different types of information pertaining to the training programme conducted. The sections are – Socio-economic background of the trainee, Computer skills, Mobile usage, Technology awareness, Training logistics and Overall impact. The assessment involved a systematic survey of the respondents conducted by CIPS in a professional manner. A sample of 50,000 beneficiaries from 30 States has been selected from the pool of 5,74,975 at the rate of approximately nine percent of the data received for each State. The data pertained to beneficiaries who have undergone the training programme and received a certificate. However, the mentioned rate is underachieved for the states of Kerala, Karnataka and Maharashtra. It was informed that in the case of Kerala, the state already had a digital literacy programme and districts that the state wished to cover, faced a lack of connectivity. This led to a lower number of certified beneficiaries while conducting the telephonic survey. For the other two states, the number of beneficiaries surveyed is lower than the targeted level because many of the trainees had not been issued the certificate when the telephonic survey was conducted due to the absence of Aadhar card which is mandatory for writing the exam and getting the certificate.
The data from 50,000 selected respondents from 30 States were collected systematically. The states were categorized into six zones, viz., North, South, East, West, Central and North-East. The responses clearly encapsulated the experience of respondents with the use of technology, computer and mobile as well as with the infrastructure and impact of the training. The telephonic survey covered 43 questions grouped under 6 sections on which impact was being assessed. The responses for each section were analyzed and statistical significance of the difference was evaluated.
NITI Aayog has been mandated with transforming India by exercising thought leadership and by invoking the instruments of co-operative and competitive federalism, focussing the attention of the State Governments and Union Ministries on achieving outcomes. As the nodal agency responsible for charting India’s quest for attaining the commitments under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), it was necessary to devise a mechanism for measuring outcomes particularly in the critical social sectors – such as Health and Education, where India’s record has been less than stellar. This was intended to provide feedback to all stakeholders as to whether we are on course to what we have set out to achieve, and deviations, if any, to be pointed out in time to ensure necessary mid-course correction.
It was identified that there are large variations in health system performance and outcomes achieved across States. The “Performance in Health Outcomes” Index seeks to capture the annual progress of States and Union Territories (UTs) on a variety of indicators – Outcomes, Governance and Processes. thus, NITI Aayog had spearheaded the exercise of reporting the overall levels of performance of States in collaboration with the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India. The process of Index development and implementation highlighted the large gaps in data availability on health outcomes. The need for making outcome data available for smaller states, more frequent and updated outcomes for non-communicable diseases and financial protection, and the need for robust programmatic data that can be used for continuous monitoring, were important issues that despite our efforts, could not be addressed optimally in this first round. Despite these challenges and limitations, it was decided to launch the Index in the first year as a model to measuring performance and ranking States on change.
In this process, CIPS was entrusted the task of being a mentor agency for the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana in disseminating the newly developed health index by NITI Aayog.
An important element of this reorganisation was the division of employees in the state and for this reason, the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act calls for the setting up of an Advisory Committee. Of all the employees, only the All India Services (AIS) employees and the State Cadre employees are liable for transfer and therefore, separate Advisory Committees have been set up for each. All the employees belonging to the territorial cadres, if located in one successor state, are deemed to have been allocated to that state. Of these, the division of State Cadre employees is very crucial as they can only be transferred in the state that they are finally allocated to. While reorganising the Headquarters and other State Departments, the State Cadre Personnel are most affected relative to the AIS or the territorial cadres. For a state like Telangana, that has experienced an intense agitation lasting decades for opportunities and development of the people and the region, such a reorganisation needs to be executed with great care and impartiality to prevent unrest and violent protests in the future.
The General Administration Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh, that was responsible for this division, along with the Centre for Good Governance (CGG), made extensive use of technology to computerize the entire process and successfully carried out the division of State Cadre employees between the successor states. A web portal was designed particularly for this purpose where the Heads of Departments and the employees were to input the relevant information at various stages. All the related Government Orders (G.Os), Guidelines, Circulars, Tentative and Final Allocation lists were uploaded online for everyone to access. This whole process made the collection and verification of particulars extremely easy. The division was entirely technology-driven, where the computer program determined the allocation, which therefore allowed for negligible errors or tampering. Only few changes in the administration were made for convenience and relevance.
This allocation has been much more transparent, efficient, unbiased and accountable resulting only in a minimal, and an almost negligible, proportion of dissatisfied employees. With the use of technology, the time required and the costs incurred have been slashed to a large extent. This computerisation and the technology-driven process has resulted in the successful allocation of over 55,000 state cadre employees where only a few administrative and political barriers remain. Considering the fact that this allocation has had little adverse impact on the General Administration and functioning of either successor states and has helped them to keep up their high pace of growth in those sensitive socio-political conditions, a need for documentation of such a process was recognized for replication in future reorganisations.
The project had the following objectives:
- Provide a platform for cross-fertilization of ideas/innovative practices and to share the experience of States/UTs in the area/usage of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for greater service delivery.
- Put in place a system that captures Innovations across MMPs and helps in the Development and Management of a Knowledge Repository that will come in handy for future reference.
- Appraise the participants about the latest ICT learning and e-Governance initiatives by Government of India/States/UTs and also provide them the necessary insights in to the processes and technical aspects of these initiatives (along with field visits, whenever possible).
- Help in the development of capabilities on Innovative & successful implementations across NeGP.
- Establish a networking forum between the experts/champions of these initiatives and to exchange and share the ideas/perspectives and development(s) in the area – from across the States/UTs.
- Discuss and arrive at a practical road-map for institutionalizing these innovative practices in their home States/UTs by adopting e-Governance and ICT initiatives.
CIPS has conducted (9) Video Conferences to facilitate cross-fertilization of ideas/innovative practices and to share the experience of States/UTs. The below table gives a brief on the same:
|Sl. No.||Topic Covered||No. of Innovative/Best practices showcased||No. of States participated|
|1.||Public Distribution System||3||15|
|9.||Empowering Gram Panchayat||3||20|
A dedicated web portal (www.mmp.cips.org.in) has been developed. The list of all the innovative/best practices showcased, resource persons and speakers have been uploaded and maintained in a regular manner.
|Year||Unique Visitors||No. of Visits||Pages||Hits||Bandwidth (In GB)|
Several field visits have been conducted under the 3-Day Intensive Training Workshops to appraise the participants on various MMP components. They are as follows:
|Sl. No.||MMP Component||State|
|3.||Agriculture & Allied Sectors||A&N Islands, Telangana, Karnataka, Gujarat, Rajasthan|
|4.||e-Office||Telangana, West Bengal|
|7.||Public Distribution System||Gujarat|
Best Practices Showcased:
Sensitization Workshop (1 Day):
- Total no. of workshops – 22
- Total No. of Resource Persons – 123
- Total No. of Presentations – 123
- Total No. of Participating States – 18
- Total No. of Participants – 2114
Intensive Training Workshop (3 Day):
- Total no. of workshops – 16
- Total No. of Resource Persons – 176
- Total No. of Presentations – 176
- Total No. of Participating States/UTs – 31
- Total No. of Participants – 1278
Under this project, CIPS has established a networking forum between the experts/champions of these initiatives and to exchange and share the ideas/perspectives and development(s) in the area – from across the States/UTs. This is shown below:
|Sl. No.||Categories of Resource Persons/Participants|
|1.||Principal Secretary/Dy. Secretary/Jt. Secretary/Addl. Secretary|
|3.||Director/Asst. Director/Dy. Director/Addl. Director/Jt. Director etc.|
|4.||Commissioner/Asst. Commissioner/Dy. Commissioner etc.|
|5.||Scientist/Principal Investigator/Statistical Officer|
|6.||Superintendent/Devt. Officer/Block Officer/Taluk/Municipal Officer/ Inspector/ Dy. Inspector etc.|
|8.||CEO/Dy. CEO/Director General/Head of Institutions/Manager/Faculty etc.|
CIPS has been able to identify the following aspects which could play an important role for institutionalizing innovative practices in their home States/UTs:
- Basic concept of e-Governance framework and opportunities to use this in Planning and Decision making.
- Exposure to the data creation, analysis & management of spatial and non-spatial data and its integration.
- Assess the replicability of various innovative/best practices in different States to enhance the service delivery system.
- Opportunities and framework to understand the potential collaboration among various stakeholders.
Milestone and Deliverables Performance:
Under this project, CIPS had taken up the following activities:
- Monitoring the day to day activities being uploaded in the Gram Panchayats.
- Sensitizing the various functionaries of the Panchayati Raj Department with the applications already in use and those that are likely to be started in so far as the e-Panchayat Mission Mode Project are concerned.
- Preparing suitable formats for monitoring the work of the transactions for the district panchayat officers, CPR and the government.
- Facilitating linkages with IT infrastructure organizations like State Data Centre (SDC), State Wide Area Network (SWAN), Common Service Centres (CSCs) and Postal Department for suitable monitoring mechanism.
- Undertaking the task of sensitizing the functionaries of CPR office on IT infrastructure.
- Ensuring updation of data in 7 PES applications in respect of all PRIs of 3 tiers of A.P.